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Lerntheorien

Lerntheorien

Die bedeutendsten Lernparadigma sind als separate Definitionen zu finden: Behaviorismus und Konstruktivismus. Die Wahl eines lerntheoretischen Paradigmas wirkt sich auf die Gestaltung von Lernumgebungen aus. Sie bezieht sich auf Fragestellungen, welche Annahmen vorherrschen, was Lernen ist, welche übergreifende Ziele verfolgt werden, wie Wissen definiert wird, wie die Realität gesehen wird (d.h. welche Erkenntnistheorie vorherrscht). Dies gibt ebenfalls Empfehlungen für die bestgeeignete Technologie...

Lerntheorien

Die wichtigsten Lerntheorien:

Learning Model Basis Premise Goals Knowledge is Realism of context Best supporting Technology
Objectivism / Behaviourism Learning is the uncritical absorption of objective knowledge (LIS- dissemination of know. by the instructor). Transfer of knowledge from instructor to students (COL-instructor). Knowledge is represented through abstract models (KIS- abstractions). Low realism, mostly absorption of external knowledge (ROC- low). Information is best presented trough graphics, figures, and other appealing designs that complement text.
Constructivism Learning is a process of constructing knowledge by an individual (LIS- creation of knowledge by the student). Formation of abstract concepts to represent reality (COL-learner). Knowledge is constructed in the mind of the learner (KIS- personal discovery of abstract concepts). Reality is in the learner’s mind and differs from others‘ reality (ROC- medium). Learning trough recreating experiences that simulate direct field visits.
Cooperativism Learning emerges though shared understandings of more than one learner (LIS- sharing of knowledge). Promote groupskills communication, listening, participation (COL- peer group). Knowledge is diversity and interaction (KIS-personal discovery of abstract concepts). 'Real' as perceived by the group (ROC-medium). Use of listservs and on-line conferencing to stimulate discussion.
Cognitive Information Processing Learning is the processing and transfer of new knowledge into long-term memory (LIS- creation of knowledge by the student). Improve processing abilities, recall and retention (COL- learner). Knowledge is in the individual representations of reality (KIS- abstractions). Little realism; processing of external input (ROC- low). Use of multimedia or hypertext gives learners the ability to select, organize, and process knowledge, is a mode that favours long-term retention.

LIS = Learning IS
COL = Control of the Learning environment
KIS = Knowledge IS
ROC = Realism of Context


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